21Physiological assessmentWe used the physiological profile

Such drugs included sedatives, hypnotics, antipsychotics https://www.pandora-jewelry-uk.com/, antidepressants, and anxiolytic agents.Three scales were used to obtain more detailed information on disability, quality of life, and physical activity. A general disability score across six domains (that is, understanding and communicating, mobility, self care, interpersonal interactions, household and work activities, and participation in society) was obtained using the 12 item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule (WHODAS II).19 Quality of life was assessed with the 20 item assessment of quality of life (AQoL II) instrument on six dimensions (independent living, social relationships, mental health, coping, pain, and sensory perception).20 Participants’ average weekly physical activity over the past three months was assessed with the incidental and planned exercise questionnaire (IPEQ), providing estimates of the frequency and duration of planned exercise and more casual day to day activities.21Physiological assessmentWe used the physiological profile assessment (PPA) (Neuroscience Research Australia pandora bracelets, Sydney NSW, Australia) to estimate the physiological fall risk.16 The PPA contains five validated measures of physiological function: visual contrast sensitivity, assessed with the Melbourne edge test; proprioception, measured with a lower limb matching task, where errors in degrees are recorded with a protractor inscribed on a vertical clear acrylic sheet placed between the legs; quadriceps strength, measured isometrically in the dominant leg while participants are seated with the hip and knee flexed to 90; simple reaction time, measured with a light as stimulus and a finger press as response; and postural sway (path length), measured with a sway meter recording displacements of the body at the level of the pelvis while participants stand on a foam rubber mat with eyes open. In our multivariate models, weighted contributions from these five variables provide a score that can predict with 75% accuracy the risk for people living in the community of multiple falls over the next 12 months.16 Higher scores on the PPA are assoicated with a greater risk of falls.In addition, the coordinated stability test assessed the integration of each of these five basic physiological systems in the maintenance of dynamic balance control.22 This dynamic balance task requires people to adjust body position in a steady and coordinated way while placing them at or near the limits of their base of support.Neuropsychological assessmentUsing the falls efficacy scale international (FES I), we assessed participants’ perceived fall risk by asking about concern about falling across a wide range of activities of daily living (such as cleaning the house, shopping, walking on uneven surfaces).

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